Insects survive in many different environmental conditions, across the world. But, when winter hits temperatures can be extreme in places, reaching -60℃, and colder! So how do insects survive this extreme fluctuation in temperature? Some insects migrate to avoid these temperatures, but some species stay put, and have physiological adaptations to survive the winter months. Thousands of species spanning several orders, including Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Mecoptera, use two techniques to survive: freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance, which have evolved independently for many species (Dennis, et al, 2015; Duman, et al, 2004; Li, 2016).
1) Freeze Tolerance:
As temperatures start falling in autumn, insects begin to synthesise 3 components key to their winter survival, these are: antifreeze proteins (AFPs), polyols and ice-nucleating agents (INA proteins).
Freeze tolerant species survive by encouraging ice formation in extracellular spaces, using INA proteins. Through osmosis, water is drawn through the cell membrane creating…
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